CM – An A-Z covering everything you need to know about the space race, from astronauts to zero gravity

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DURING THE BATTLE OF Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk, and Richard Branson as the first billionaire to conquer space travel, it is not always easy for the rest of us to learn the latest terminology in the New Age space race Keeping up.

This month we’re delving deep into all things in space as part of The Good Information Project.

From the mysterious dark matter to the prospect of space colonization, this glossary contains all the terms that you need to keep up with the space race of the 21st century.

The Artemis program is the name of NASA’s initiative aimed at bringing people back to the moon with the long-term goal of doing missions to Mars man. The program was signed by then-President Donald Trump in 2017 and has since set an ambitious deadline for landing astronauts on the South Pole by 2024.

NASA is currently building new technologies in preparation for the mission, including the Space Launch System ( SLS) rocket, the Orion spacecraft and Exploration Ground Systems, and is working with commercial and international partners to build sustainable structures on and around the moon. They recently selected Elon Musk’s SpaceX to build a lunar lander that will take their astronauts to the lunar surface in 2024.

An astronaut is, by definition, someone who is trained and deployed by a manned space program to aboard of a spaceship to travel. Astronauts usually have a scientific, technical, mathematical or aeronautical background and have many years of experience in their respective fields before they have to go through years of extensive training in order to prepare for space flight.

Although this may seem simplistic, the term « astronaut » was recently updated by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the first changes since their commercial Astronaut Wings program began in 2004.

The changes were announced the same day as Amazon -Founder Jeff Bezos flew to the edge of space aboard his Blue Origin rocket, disqualifying him from being awarded his wings.

The rules state that in order to qualify as commercial astronauts, space visitors to qualify as commercial astronauts, astronaut hopes will be part of the flight crew and must travel 80 km above the surface of the earth.

While Bezos actually 100 km Having traveled above the surface of the earth, the amendments also state that would-be astronauts have also « demonstrated in-flight activities that were essential to public safety or contributed to the safety of human spaceflight ».

Loud Nasa is a black hole “a place in space where gravity is so strong that even light cannot come out”. This occurs when a large amount of matter is squeezed into a very small space.

Black holes are created when the center of a very large star reaches the end of its life and implodes or collapses. When the star dies, it causes a supernova, an exploding star that hurls part of the star into space. Because of the lack of light, scientists can’t really see black holes, but they know they’re there by studying how their strong gravity affects the stars and the gas around them.

Black holes are getting « bigger » or more massive because they consume matter in their vicinity. Some are tiny, but have the mass of a large mountain. A “stellar” black hole can be up to 20 times the mass of the Sun, while the largest black holes are called “supermassive”. These have masses of more than 1 million suns together. Scientists have found evidence that every large galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center. The larger the black hole, the larger a zone of no return, where anything that invades its territory is irrevocably lost to the black hole. This is known as the event horizon.

Blue Origin is the private space company owned by Amazon’s Jeff Bezos. The billionaire founded the company in 2000 with the aim of one day using artificial gravity to bring people to live and work in space. After growing slowly, it successfully flew its first stage reusable rocket, New Shepard, some 100 km above the earth in 2015. In July, Bezos successfully launched the rocket for ten minutes to celebrate the 52nd anniversary of the first moon landing.

However, the company has had its fair share of controversy. Blue Origin recently filed a civil lawsuit against NASA after it selected rival company SpaceX to build its lunar lander, stating that the process behind the decision « was flawed ». Around 17 key executives and senior engineers have left Blue Origin in the past few months, many of whom have been affiliated with the company’s lunar landing program.

Everything we know about space – planets, stars, galaxies – only makes up 5% of the universe. Dark matter is the name for the mass in the universe that remains invisible.

According to Nasa, around 68% of the universe consists of dark energy, the remaining 27% is called dark matter. It is so called because it is invisible and we have no way of seeing it.

We know that it exists because of its strong gravitational force and because it distorts light from distant stars. The greater the distortion, the greater the concentration of dark matter. Recently, scientists have tried to develop a technology that will allow them to actually identify dark matter in the universe.

Although there is no generally accepted definition of where the edge of space begins, the World Air Sports Federation (FAI ) the Karman line to define the boundary between the earth’s atmosphere and space. This defines the edge of space as starting about 100 km (62 miles or 330,000 feet) above sea level.

However, David Moore of Astronomy Ireland told The Journal last month that this figure is much debated and that the real limit is Is « probably closer to 50 miles » above sea level.

The Irish Education Satellite 1, or EIRSAT-1, is Ireland’s first satellite. It was announced in 2017 and is being developed by a team of PhD students and professors from University College Dublin (UCD) as part of the European Space Agency’s “Fly Your Satellite!” Program. At just 22 x 10 x 10 cm, the “CubeSat” is smaller than a shoebox, but its complexity still corresponds to a standard space mission. When completed, it will conduct three experiments in its low earth orbit at an altitude of 400 km. Final tests for the satellite will be conducted in Belgium next month to bring it one step closer to launching into low Earth orbit in 2022.

An orbit is the gravitationally curved orbit of an object in space. In short, it is a repetitive circular motion that an object in space makes around another object due to the pull of gravity. An object in orbit is called a satellite. A satellite can be natural, like the Earth or the moon, or it can be man-made like the International Space Station. The time it takes for a satellite to complete a full orbit is called the period.

For example, the Earth has an orbital period of one year. All satellites move on or near the orbital plane, an imaginary disk-shaped surface in space that connects the center of the orbiting object with the center of the orbiting object.

The Perseverance rover was released by NASA last year as part of their Mars 2020 mission started. It successfully landed on Mars in February. The rover, nicknamed Percy, was designed to explore a crater on the red planet called Jezero that contained a lake 3.5 billion years ago.

Its mission is to search for signs of ancient life and to provide samples to explore and collect for the future return to earth from different environments on mars. Rock and soil samples it collects with its drill will be stored in tubes on the surface of Mars to bring around 30 samples to Earth in the early 2030s.

SpaceX or Space Exploration Technologies Corporation is a privately owned space company owned by Tesla CEO Elon Musk. Musk founded the company in 2002 with the hope of revolutionizing the aerospace industry and making affordable space travel a reality. In 2012 it was the first private company to send a cargo ship to the International Space Station (ISS). It sent its first two astronauts aboard the SpaceX Crew Dragon to the ISS in May 2020 and followed this test flight with the successful launch of four astronauts in November 2020. In May, it successfully launched and landed its Starship rocket ship, bringing Musk’s dream of orbital and then one step closer to interplanetary travel.

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Space colonization refers to the hypothetical concept of humans living permanently outside the earth. Previously only the subject of science fiction books and Hollywood films, the idea that we could live in space is a few steps closer to reality.

Nasahas said that urgency puts life on people enabling other planets, « has been reconfirmed by the occurrence of a global pandemic » and that the long-term colonization of the International Space Station by rotating teams of astronauts, scientists and medical professionals « has given us a wealth of data to determine parameters in order to keeping people alive and healthy for long periods of time in the harsh environment of space. ”

Although there is no clear indication of when this might happen, the moon seems to be the starting point. NASA says that within six years he will develop the ability to set up a lunar colony, although there are currently no plans to do so. Russia and China have also announced their respective roadmaps for setting up a lunar base, but both say they have no plans to send astronauts to the moon within the next decade.

Space law is the body of international law that governs behavior regulates in and in connection with space. It consists of a framework of treaties, agreements and principles first developed in the 1960s by the United Nations at the beginning of the « space race » between the United States and the Soviet Union. It also covers other areas of law, from criminal, commercial and insurance law to real estate and environmental law.

The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is the forum for the development of international space law. The committee has concluded five international space treaties. The Outer Space Treaty was passed in 1967 and is the basis of international space law. It describes how space can be explored peacefully, affirms the equitable use of space and prohibits any nation from “appropriating” space “by claiming sovereignty, by use or occupation or otherwise”.

The rescue agreement lays down states that when a nation encounters an astronaut in distress, it must save him. The Liability Convention states that a country is liable for damage if its space object damages that of another.

According to the registration convention, countries must register with the United Nations before they send anything into space, and the lunar convention states that the moon and other celestial bodies should only be used for peaceful purposes, that their surroundings should not be disturbed, and that the United Nations should be informed of the location and purpose of any station established in these facilities.

According to the UN office for space affairs, each treaty emphasizes the notion that space, the activities carried out in space, and any benefits that may arise from space should be devoted to “the betterment of the well-being of all countries and mankind”, with an emphasis on promoting international cooperation. ”

The effects of weightlessness ode r Zero gravity occurs when the effects of gravity cannot be felt. Many people believe that there is no gravity in space, but this is a common misconception.

While we cannot accurately feel gravity on Earth, we can feel the force of the ground pushing our feet up . So we can perceive gravity as weight. When we jump, gravity is still acting on us – we just can’t feel it. We feel weightless.

Therefore, an astronaut orbiting Earth in space feels weightless for exactly the same reason. Since there is no ground or normal force to counteract gravity, they continuously fall towards the earth. As the spaceship moves so fast, it curves away from them and they eventually orbit the earth in a circle, just like the moon.

This work is co-funded by Journal Media and a grant program from the European Parliament. All opinions or conclusions expressed in this work are your own. The European Parliament is neither involved in nor responsible for the editorial content of the project. More information can be found here.

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An A-Z of everything you need to know about the space race, from astronauts to zero gravity commentary

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